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Thanks James, yes it was Charles V.
There were very serious issues that did lead up to some of the issues that sparked the Reformation that had to be addressed. The secular Clergy were poorly trained, many simply apprenticed learning from their local priest. Many of the laity were poorly instructed in the faith, and disregarded the moral and dogmatic teachings of the Church (Remind you of any other times in history?) The Counter-Reformation was an effort within the Catholic Church to address these issues.
One of the Counter-Reformation tasks was to establish a standard for Seminaries, the coursework and spiritual formation was now required to meet a minimum standard. There was also Liturgical Chaos, Different areas were following their own rites and Mass was not offered uniformly. While the same basic format existed, there were many different variations, and little unity. The Liturgical books were up to this point all copied by hand. If a local bishop wanted to change something, he did. After the Council of Trent, which was called in part to address some of the new doctrines that Martin Luther and Jon Calvin were teaching, the Council addressed some of the issues that Luther, Calvin and many Catholic bishops were unhappy with. Pope Pius V, was tasked to reform the Breviary and Missal, everywhere the Mass was offered in a rite that was not in constant use for 200 years or more the Breviary and Missal was made to conform to the way the Mass was offered in Rome. This meant that the Rites of the Dominicans, Franciscans, Milan, Braga, and Toledo (Spain) would remain intact, but newer rites in France and Germany that were developed more recently would have to conform to the Rite that had been offered in Rome since Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) in around 700, but going back even further. The Counter-Reformation was depicted in a drawing of the day showing Protestants hacking at the outside of the Church with axes, while Catholics repaired leaks and things that had broken on the inside.
Because the Jesuits were very well trained and engaged in debate with Protestants, as well as added to their vows of Poverty, Chastity and Obedience, a speacial vow of Fidelity to the Pope. As well as being founded by a former Soldier who modeled the Society of Jesus along the lines of the Military standards he knew, they became the target of attack. Many rumors developed about them, just like the rumors about Opus Dei (most famously attacked by rumors in Dan Brown’s Davinci Code.)